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Diagnosing and troubleshooting computer hardware

What is hardware?

Are these terms familiar to you? Monitor, RAM, CD drive, CPU, graphics cards are all hardware, more specifically, computer hardware. These components form a computer, working with computer software to work with a computer.

Simply put, hardware is a tangible part of the computer, parts that can be touched, felt, and so on. As mentioned earlier, hardware and software are theoretically a fully functional system. However, you rarely get a fully functional system at all times. It almost certainly fails hardware, either within electronic circuits, or the whole component itself. Sometimes the initial factor of hardware failures is not the component of the system itself, but external factors such as environmental disasters such as fire, earthquakes, and lightning.

Recovering broken hardware is not a big problem in itself. It basically identifies and replaces the problem component. However, hardware failures are the most deadly when they affect the daily routine and affect critical personal or business data. This is especially true of the most important component of a computer system when storing data on the hard disk

Below is a list of common hardware failures:

  • RAM Problems
  • Power Problems
  • Hard Disk
  • Overheating
  • LCD Errors
  • RAM Problems It is somewhat harder to diagnose because similar symptoms may be caused by software problems, other hardware problems, or even failure on the motherboard. However, if you experience any of these symptoms, users should check the bad RAM before trying any other troubleshooting.


    • Windows does not start by displaying various error messages.
    • Windows crashes (blue screen) or freezes frequently.
    • Windows crashes as you try to start a program.
    • It is not known as a random crash and freezes without error messages.

    AC adapter

    One of the weak points on every laptop is the DC power supply. If someone is traveling through the power supply cable while still connecting to the laptop, there is a great chance that the power plug will be seriously damaged.

    On most laptops, the DC power supply is directly soldered to the motherboard, only three or four small pins are in place, which weakens power transmission. Any lateral pulling of the DC power cord while it is connected to the laptop usually pulls at least one of them and surrounds the solder. Modern laptops use a lot of energy, from about 70W to 120W or more. The wrong electrical connection from the trigger pin causes sparks and heat to cause a hole to light on the motherboard and may even cause a fire hazard.

    Symptoms that indicate a poor connection between the DC power supply and the motherboard:

    • The battery does not charge properly or is charged halfway, even though the AC adapter is used.
    • The screen flashes (the brightness changes) while the power cord is plugged in. This laptop replaces DC power (brightness of the screen) and battery power (brightness of the screen).
    • The DC plug is hot after a few minutes and can even smell the burn.
    • There are some "scratch" sounds that come from the DC socket.

    How to test the disconnected power plug:

      first Remove the battery

      2. Connect the power cord

      3. Start the laptop

      4. Gently pull the DC power cable on the back of the laptop

    If your laptop suddenly turns off (losing power), locate the dealer to reset or change the DC power connector as soon as possible as the motherboard has started to burn around the squeezed needles. The manufacturer may offer replacement of the entire motherboard; however, the cost of a new motherboard and the cost of making a paycheck generally will pay more than the current value of the laptop, and sometimes pricing may cost more than a thousand dollars.

    Replacing or re-soldering the DC power connector is not an easy task. It typically takes a couple of hours depending on the damage and the laptop model. To access the power supply, the laptop should be completely disassembled and the motherboard removed. If the board surrounding the jammed ball is bad, the power supply must be soldered and the board repaired.

    Next, another power supply must be attached, attached to the laptop and connected to the wiring to the system board, as the inserted board would not be strong enough to support the original power socket directly on the table. ]

    Hard drive failure is the most common computer hardware problem. And laptop hard drives are more likely to fail than desktop hard drives due to laptop portability, rather than a rather stagnant laptop. If the user kicks knocking hard or even throws a few inches away from the laptop while it is accessing or turning on the hard drive, it may be damaged on the hard drive


    • The laptop is booting normally, but when Windows starts loading, the blue screen "UNMOUNTABLE_BOOT_VOLUME", "hal.dll missing or corrupted" or "WINDOWSSYSTEM32CONFIGSYSTEM" (or similar) is missing or corrupted. These error messages indicate a file system problem. Sometimes it can be fixed to scan the hard disk in case of an error. However, more than half of these cases indicate that the hard drive is getting bad and is likely to develop bad sectors.
    • The laptop is booting normally, but Windows crashes on the initial "Windows XP" screen, although the blue bar is still in motion and users can hear loud but steady clicks. Hard drives must be replaced.
    • As soon as the laptop starts, loud clicks or grinding sounds occur and Windows does not load. Hard drives should also be replaced.
    • Shortly when a laptop starts, a message appears (usually on a black screen) "The SMART test fails, save the data immediately and replace the hard drive" or the like. Well, that's all you say. CLEVER. a self-test based on hard disk

    In almost every case, your laptop can be booted from a "live" bootable CD and everything works okay. Rarely, the hard disk printed circuit board (PCB) may be short-circuited and still on. In this scenario, the laptop will not boot unless the hard drive has been removed.

    An ADRC Hard Disk Controller is a good tool for checking the lifetime of a hard drive. It examines the hard disk for bad sectors and informs you that the drive is still good for use. Overheating occurs when the outside of the computer is improper airflow through the CPU and the motherboard and the incident is usually caused by the power supply fan and the other fan-fans.


    through the fan.

    If air flow is interrupted, heat quickly accelerates. This will stop these components if such protection is built-in or malfunctioning. Long-term overheating can cause irreversible damage

    It is also recommended to keep your computer in a dry and shaded room, which is clean and tiny.

    LCD errors

    The most common LCD or "Liquid Crystal Display" screen error inverter, cable, and backlight


    • It looks like your laptop is booting in the usual way but the screen is black when the user moves, turns on, and works properly. Failed cable.
    • It seems that the laptop is in the usual way, but the screen is very dark, though its color changes a bit and users can see a very fine picture. An inverter or cable failed 90% / 10%.
    • Immediately after launching the screen, it is dark pink / red and darkens after a few seconds. Failed backlight.
    • The screen flashes a few times, but darkens when the user moves or slightly touches the page, flashing again. Failed cable or LCD 50% / 50%.
    • The screen is black or white (no picture) and the external monitor works. Failed cable or LCD 30% / 70%.
    • There are stripes on the screen (vertically or horizontally) that change when users move the screen or touch the page easily. Failed cable or LCD 10% / 90%.


    Most motherboards are due to defective "onboard" controlled devices and components. The onboard power supply circuit is partially defective and the later components are overloaded, otherwise the problem is with primary defective capacitors.

    On a non-warranty laptop, failure on the motherboard usually means a new laptop. The price of a new motherboard is usually higher than the current value of a laptop.


    Connect the power supply and try to start the laptop

    • Nothing happens.
    • The "ON" light is on, the fan rotates, but nothing on the screen (black) and 10 to 15 seconds after no HD is heard.
    • The "ON" light is on, the fan rotates, but after a few seconds, the light goes out.
    • After pressing the "ON" button, the screen will remain black and you will hear a silent high sound from your laptop.

    Defective or Incorrect Device Drivers and Operating Systems

    Invalid or corrupt device drivers may damage the destruction on a server and in some cases the system can not be started. Drivers collide with certain applications and may cause problems with your computer system.

    Because Windows Vista only started the computer, the new operating system does not support or support hardware.

    system updates, driver updates can also fix "hardware" problems.

    See Updates and Fixes

    It also helps (occasionally) with the particular hardware.

    Control error:

    The controller failure is very similar to driver failure. However, if the drive fails, users may not have access to that drive; when the controller fails, users will not have access to all drives, devices, and other components attached to that controller

    The controller does not work because the component or components on the control panel are defective. When starting the system, users can not turn on, view, access, or even get hardware error messages

    The controller fails for the following reasons:

    • Devices / components are not properly connected

        Check that the cables properly connect the device / component to the controller
        If the component fits into an aperture, check that the device is plugged in and not loosely connected
      1. Check that devices / components are properly detected and configured on the appropriate control setup screen
    • Bad Connectors

        Replace Bad Connectors with New Functional
    • Incorrect Parts

        Replace component
    • Wrong interface card or motherboard

        We recommend replacing or replacing these components

    Hardware issue: The big problem

    The big problem, as mentioned above, does not replace or improve non-functional hardware but the lost time, the daily routines (especially for businesses) and the loss of critical data. If you always need a running system, backup or even two, you have a security system. If users want to make sure that no critical data is lost on a hardware problem with your computer, we can do it in only one way. – Restoring Data As Fast as Possible

    There are several ways to secure data backup and technology is advanced, and backing support methods will be much simpler.

    Let's take a look at what backups are. Backing up computer files means that users are backing up data stored elsewhere than the computer. Everyone should always have at least the backup of the most important files, because when someone experiences a hardware problem, they still have access to the files.

    Many do not back up files, do not know what they need to backup. Start files that can not be easily re-created. Then, switch to the files you frequently change, unless you accidentally change something you should not. Create your music collection because it can be expensive for data loss.

    Generally speaking, it is best practice to back up files at least monthly and more frequently when users regularly access files

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