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Introduction to Windows Drivers


Drivers are small files that the operating system uses to communicate with various hardware devices connected to a computer. Instead of communicating directly with the hardware, the system sends messages through the driver, which invokes the functions of each device as needed. The device controller serves only a small number of inputs for the end user. For example, if you have a driver installed, you will probably never have to interact with it. The background works only when the operating system prompts you.

Windows Drivers Operation

The Windows operating system distributes the memory of the default drivers. The drivers are loaded into the Function Input Table. When the functions of a particular device are required, Windows refers to the Functional Replenishment Table and precisely selects the exact functions as needed.

For example, use the Canon scanner to scan the image. Windows refers to the Functional Despreading Table for the code required to perform this function. The system then sends the request to the scanner. When the drive receives the request, it performs the following three steps:

o Reacts accordingly by performing this function and confirming that the task is complete.

o If the device is busy with another task, accept the request and sort the job

o Notify the operating system that a problem exists and the task can not be executed.

Most drivers in kernel mode known. Windows manages code in the kernel or user mode. Processes running in kernel mode can work directly with hardware and system memory. In contrast, user mode is often used for software applications. This mode allows programs to access and use the services provided by the operating system but can not access the hardware directly.

Device Driver Issues

As with computer programs, device drivers and hardware can cause many problems. Some of the most common problems are the uncertainty with each program, the collapse of programs or the computer itself. In many cases, updating or completely replacing the driver can solve hardware and software problems.

Updating Windows Drivers

Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality Lab tests a number of device drivers. When a driver passes a number of tests, he digitally signs and recognizes the Windows system. Users can also install unaddressed drivers, depending on the computer signature control level. Checking the signature can be disabled with level 0, while level 1 will allow you to verify the digital signature and confirm that it is not there. The installation can continue if there are no signers for the drivers. Level 2 is a setting that prevents the installation of all devices that are not signed by Microsoft.

To check the signature of some device drivers, open the "Start" menu, click on "Run" and enter the "sigverif" command box. This command is used to scan all the device driver programs on your computer and identify the signature.

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