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How Computer Hardware Works



The microprocessor is the brain of every computer. It checks all activities on your computer. It basically consists of 2 types of operations: arithmetic and logical operation (internally), reading and writing (externally). Read / Write operations are performed on two devices – I / O and memory devices. By using the "address bus" you can select "location" on these devices, send a read / write signal over the "control bus" and then enter the information on the "data bus".


The CPU stores all the information in the computer memory. There are two memory types: RAM and ROM

RAM (Random Access Memory):

This is a volatile type of reader and writer memory device.

RAM types:

· DRAM (Dynamic ram) – similar to the condenser because it loses its contents and therefore requires updating. This computer is RAM.

· SRAM (Static RAM) – faster than dramatic and no need to upgrade. This is costly and therefore only a limited amount of CACHE memory is used in the computer.

ROM (Read Only Memory):

ROM is a programmable programmer and then acts as a "read only" device. This tool is used as a computer for the CPU of your computer, and this is the ROM BIOS. It stores all basic information on the system stored on the system and on POST (Power On Self Test) sequences. AMIBIOS and AWARD BIOS are the most common ROM BIOS

ROM types

· PROM (programmable read-only memory)

· EPROM (eraseable and programmable read-only memory)

· FLASH ROM [19659002] · EEPROM (electrically EPROM)

· EAPROM (electrically modifiable ROM)


Apart from passive memory devices, there are controllers in the system, operation. These are called I / O devices. These devices include interruption controllers, timers, ports, DMA controllers, floppy disk drive controllers, CRT controllers, and so on.

ISA (industrial standard architecture):

The ISA bus consists of a 24-bit address bus and a 16-bit data bus. ISA can support 8MHz clock speeds.

MCA BUS (microcontroller architecture):

The MCA bus is available in 16-bit or 32-bit versions. New PS / 2 (Personal System 2) Computers have been developed.


EISA has 32 bit address and data buses and 10MHZ CLK speeds.


This is a 32-bit bus that is placed on the CPU and is thus named. That's why it can support high bus speeds (CPUs).


PCI has a number of advantages over other bus types. First, it supports 64-bit and 32-bit data paths. This can be used for both 486 and Pentium based systems. PCI can run up to 33MHz and has the advantage of being isolated from the CPU.

PCMCIA: (PC Memory Card International Association):

PCMCIA was first designed to expand memory on small, managed computers. The PCMICIA bus width is only 16-bit, but a 32-bit version is on the way.

· Type 1 (3.3 m thick) – Memory card

· Type 2 (5 mm thick) – For modem and LAN adapter

· Type 3


These are the cards that are on the motherboard, on the motherboard (one on the CPU and on the RAM / ROM) Bios). Each special task is provided to the motherboard for peripheral devices, such as a mouse, monitor, etc. Relationship. Some additions are discussed below.


These interfaces are the motherboard with the monitor, and there are many types of cards. The versions are resolved, not.

640 X 200

MDA (Mono Display Adapter):

80 characters long 25-line long

EGA (Advanced Graphics Adapter):

640 X 350 Mode

VGA (Video- ):

Special SVGA / TVGA Versions with 640 X 480 Pixels

AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port):


Supports the following features


Communication is external to the computer in series (bit after bit) through this port. Communication tools such as a mouse, a modem, etc. Used to connect.


An 8-bit data transfer occurs between the computer and an external device.


Connects to a joystick that plays games.

IDE (Integrated / Intelligent Drive Electronics) Interface: This interface is for communication with IDE Hard disks


FDC supports up to two floppy disk drives. The FDC connects to the system bus and DMA controller.


This card is a microphone and speaker interface that provides sound effects to your computer. This is used in multimedia computers



1.44 MB and 1.2 MB are two popular floppy drives.


ST 506 and ESDI are old models. IDE hard drives are popular because their price-performance ratio is very good. For high performance, SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) is the ideal choice if price is not a criterion.


The CDROM drive is used in a multimedia system as it supports all kinds of CD-ROMs – whether data CDs, audio CDs, video CDs. It is a great advantage that a single CD will have approx. It stores 650 MB of data.


Keyboard converts keys to letters or numbers. These are interpreted by the computer and the CPU executes the sent commands. Variations in the XT / AT, no. the type of keys, the keys used can be observed.


Interaction with images (ICONS) has introduced a special pointing device to the computer world. This device is known as a mouse and is connected to the serial port.

The mouse contains a round sphere that contacts two rollers – an X axis (horizontal) and an Y axis (to the vertical). Moving the mouse moves the ball and the ball that is in contact with the two rollers turns around. This is used to move the mouse button, moving the index head to the screen and to the selection.


In addition to keyboards and pointing devices, another very common method of loading data into a computer. Use the scanner to scan an image (say a photo) and edit it with the appropriate software


The monitor receives video signals from the computer video adapter card and displays video information as pixels (picture elements) on the screen. Monitors other than CGA mono and SVGA are available to users (though the former is completely obsolete)


Here is the configuration of the system. This will only happen if the system is first compiled, configured, or upgraded. (Press the SETUP button to enter the "Del" key when the system is switched on). Different BIOSs support different options, but the most important ones are found on all systems.

DATE & TIME: Shows the correct date and time.


Determining Connected Floppy Disks (1.2MB or 1.44MB)

Hard Disk Type: Hard Disk Type (Primary or Secondary)

DISPLAY TYPE: Select the type of video adapter used for the system monitor


This category will speed up memory access.

POWER MANAGEMENT: This category allows you to configure the password for the system.

POWER MANAGEMENT: This category allows you to: to select the type (or scale) of energy saving.


There are several parameters that must be specified in the CMOS setting and can not be manually enabled. This option loads the default values ​​stored in the BIOS ROM that the manufacturer has determined for optimal system performance


Enabling and disabling certain on-board functions, such as Floppy Disk Control, and so on. (This only applies to the integrated motherboards where ADD ON functions are integrated into the motherboard.)

PNP CHARACTERISTICS: This category is used to configure PCI bus slots

IDE AUTO DETECTION: This allows IDE hard drives to be automatically [19659002] SAVING AND EXIT:

You can save this new setting value to CMOS memory and continue the boot process


The POST firmware is located on the ROM on the system board. This POST is a simple program with a series of programs that test and catch errors in various components and circuits. It examines the microprocessor, interruption controller, PPI, DMA controller, ROM, RAM, peripheral controllers, and so on.


In the event of a POST error message, error messages / error messages are used to help troubleshoot errors. ] SPEAKER:

Speaker errors can be used to correct faults.


An error message appears on the screen (floppy disk failure) if the video adapter is operational [19659002] DIAGNOSTIC CARDS:

The Advanced Diagnostic Card on the card records the details of the POST section and Displays the hex code that can be used to thoroughly and accurately diagnose the POST problem


A computer CD-ROM drive uses small removable plastic enclosed discs from which the data is transmitted with a laser beam, similar to the music compact disc . And like a music CD, the computer CD-ROM stores a large amount of information. This light can be achieved by storing the data in a form that is packed tighter than the relatively thin magnetic reader / writer that a conventional drive needs to handle.

The drive is controlled by software on your computer, this is either part of the motherboard on a computer or on a separate expansion slot in a slot

How does a CD-ROM drive work?

· The engine constantly changes the speed at which the CD-ROMs rotate, regardless of whether a component whose name is DETECTOR relative to the radius of the disc is located directly above the sensor

· A laser focuses on a focused beam that focuses on a focusing coil.

· Laser beam penetrates a plastic protective layer and reflects a reflective layer that looks like aluminum foil at the bottom of the disc.

· The surface of the reflective layer alternates between the ground and the pits. Areas are flat surfaces; the recesses show slight reflection in the reflective layer. these surfaces are the values ​​1 and 0 used to store the data.

· The lights are scattered into a pit. However, the ground light reflects directly to the sensor where it passes through a prism that directs the laser beam to a LIGHT-SENSING DIODE.

· All light pulses associated with light sensor diodes are small electrical voltages. These voltages are matched to a timer circuit to generate 1s and 0s of current that can understand.

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