Networks must be transparent to users. The network and distributed distributed applications must be as reliable as running on a single computer. In addition, the network needs to provide self-healing capabilities that can break network traffic around broken cables and faulty components and are flexible enough to respond to changes in the business environment.
Local networks were very simple, but now they have different structures, at least five computing standards for transmission, and two standards for the network information. Local networks have become complexes that require their own operating system
Networking is still the least known and most important element in the organization's infra structure. Most client / server computing organizations are in agreement that linking local networks is not the place where you can save money. The advice is not to try to connect to compatible local networks with different platforms, such as hardware, software, and operating systems
1. Connected Device
2. Backbone Networks
3. High Speed Desktop High Speed Local Area Network
As local networks are spread across an organization, bridges and routers are used by them. For example, a router can be used for transmitting information between Ethernet, token ring, and fiber-shared data link networks. Users are unlikely to perform full 100 MHz fiber distributed data interleaving; because the router manages all connections
Backbone networks also connect local networks but provide high-speed data transfer and control the flow of data between different networks. The high-speed local area network connects desktop machines directly to the fiber-shared data interconnect network and thus has a full 100 MHz transmission rate. This configuration is designed for large amounts of data intensive applications, such as those that deliver graphic information and images.
The two most common local networks are the token ring of Ethernet and the International Business Machine. The Ethernet uses a baseband coaxial cable or shielded pair cable and operates at 10 MHz. Its protocol is a carrier-sensed, multiple access crash detection
This requires a device to monitor the network and send the message, only detecting that the network is not in use. If you experience a collision, the device must stop the transfer and try again when it detects the network is clear.
Token Ring uses a shielded pair of wires or optical cables and can operate at 4 or 16 MHz frequencies. Its protocol is called a token ring. A special code code, called a token, is transferred from the station to the station. If you want to send a device message, you want the token to come, take over the network, and forward the message. The token returns to the network after the transfer is completed