Most software projects do not result in complete or partial failure because a small project meets all requirements. These requirements may be the costs, the schedule, the quality or the objectives of the requirements. According to a number of studies, error rates for software projects are between 50% and 80%. This essay is the compilation of defective causes of software development projects; this essay combines areas that play an important role in the failure of software projects.
So, what's the cause of the software project bug? The sad fact is that software projects fail because we do not recognize that good technical principles should apply to software projects, just as building office buildings. We try to protect ourselves by building the software "other".
One of the most serious complaints about software failure is the inability
to estimate with reasonable accuracy the necessary costs, resources, and timing
for a software project. Traditional evaluation methods have always come up
positive results that contribute to over-known and infected costs
Over the last 20 years, many cost and schedule estimation techniques
is used with mixed sensitivity because of the limitation of evaluation models. ruling
some of the estimates are due to a lack of understanding
software development process and the impact of the method used in the project
Plan, Scheduling and Cost Estimates
Error Case Studies
Below are some case studies that we will analyze
Main causes of Software System Malfunction
Northumbria University has developed accounting software for daily
business. The project did not come up with the desired results and failed
meet deadlines. The studies have shown that fund project management
did not follow the procedure. This case study refers to this study
different points where needed. 
Hong Kong-based multinational company (SMHK) Thai subsidiary (SMTL)
participated in the manufacture of electronic equipment. They did one
integrated software suite; which was a deficiency of several factors. These
factors are mostly related to management. For example, it fits badly into business
the process assumptions in software and business processes in SMTL,
poor leadership at different levels, cultural differences, organizational
environment and poor human resource management.
The St. John Hospital is a District General Hospital that is Medical and
nursing services, which include general surgery and medicine. all these
features diagnostic imaging, laboratory, ambulance, pharmacy support
and therapeutic services that are all on the spot. Like the main hospital is a tourist
area, deals with many vacations in the holiday season, generating large quantities
Software Management and Management
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that effective leadership is essential for successful IT implementation (Klenke, 1994). The leader must have cultural sensitivity, communication skills, creativity, transfer capability, and abilities to develop and conserve human resources (Luthans, 1994). The software manager of the (SMHK) was in the west where the lower leaders were eastern. So there has always been a cultural confrontation. Jack (Manager) always tries to introduce creative thoughts. And in most cases the bottom management could not do it. That's why there was constant clash.
Employees also felt that the management barely "listened" to their concerns
or trying to solve them. Consequently, many employees are reluctant to leave
to the company and did so when alternatives were found in the other
Project Planning and Scheduling
Project planning means creating a break in work, and then allocating responsibility to developers over time. Project planning consists of the construction of various tasks, timelines and major roads, including Gantt charts and PERT charts, as well as various written plans for different situations.
It is customary to work backwards in the software development process
project end date, resulting in a complete software project failure. This
is impossible for a project to be effectively completed at the design stage
to the enforcement stage.
The division of roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined, and
will be decisive when renting from outside. The university is higher
management did not apply basic project management rules that a
Before starting the project, an appropriate schedule is required. it
includes time schedules, team schedules. Project leaders do not know what
have to plan and schedule it. Just tell the programmer what to do
and programmers can find the right solution.
The development moved to a new office and the office was not completely
equipped with the right infrastructure. Because time is a big factor in success
or a failure of a project. So it delayed the development process and contributed
towards the project failure. The infrastructure is not fully planned and
leadership team did not know where and how the project will be developed
The most important secret of the winning software development project is to guide
quality and lower risk. The contingency plan is also part of the design. In
case things went wrong, then we can follow this plan if we reduce its impact
Project Failure. The same was the university's accounting software. THE
management team did not have such a contingency plan and did not evaluate the risk
participated in the design of the new system. This has caused more problems without it
security system or security plan
Management just tries to follow methods like SDLC or RAD, but does not know which method to use and when to apply the correct technique
. ] Cost estimate
Cost estimates mainly concern the costs of efforts to produce a software project. But this is not limited to effort. This includes hardware and software costs, employee and customer training, customer travel, network and communication costs. The cost estimate is to be performed as part of the software process model
Cost estimate needs to be done well before the project starts
development. Failure to budget the project costs
complete disaster. As mentioned earlier, infrastructure costs and development tools
Cost and hardware costs must first be estimated.
The same thing happened with the University's bookkeeping system development. They
purchased the new system, regardless of the serious cost estimate
Below is the list of reasons why a poor cost estimate was made
Improper Estimation Methodology
Another reason would be to use an inappropriate cost estimation method. No method is better than anything else. Each methodology has its own strong and weak points, which must be taken into account. In Dr. Barry Boehm's book, Software Engineering Economics lists seven estimation methods. One or more of these methods can be used to estimate the cost of a project
"It's a good idea to use multiple software cost estimation methods
should be used for accurate estimation. "
Cost Estimator Tools
There are many disadvantages in manual cost estimation: this method is almost obsolete, today's cost estimate includes the right commercial software cost estimator
Good software estimation tools do not always guarantee reliable software
estimate. Failure to provide the software size results in a poor estimate.
The estimation software should also be tailored to individual needs
organization. These customizations require data from past projects
Input for Tool Estimation
There are several reasons why these devices may return a poor estimate.
Selection of the appropriate estimation tool
Choosing the right estimation tool is required for the appropriate estimate. The device can not handle the input so it can set up a poor estimate so the software project will fail.
Simplification is simple
As mentioned above, the selected device should be customizable according to the body's needs so that the organization can customize your needs and past project data.
Easy to use and learn
The cost estimation tool should be easy to use and learnable. It should include help and examples, a simple and straightforward user interface. This requires fewer training to learn the system and inputs need to be well defined
The estimation tool should be able to analyze each parameter and estimate its cost correctly.
Risk management is an important factor in failing software projects if they are not timely and efficiently managed. Since there is nothing to predict what will happen in the future, it is necessary to take the necessary steps in the present for any uncertain situation in the future. Risk Management means having to worry before it becomes a crisis
According to the Universal Risk Project, there are two conditions that may be a risk symbol 
- IF-THEN Statements
- If we do not have enough qualified engineers to do so, we can not complete the planned development schedule
identifies the areas where the risk may be and how
may have an impact on the development of the project. The risk may be of a technical nature
is not of a technical nature. Project leaders need to be aware of both the risks. Most
project managers are not good on both sides. A good manager
Programming skills can be useful in identifying technical risk, but not gender
After identifying risk, risk categories are required. The risk analysis will use the analysis of the results and the results of the project and the risk reduction technique after the risk analysis. Once the risk analysis has been completed, an appropriate risk assessment plan has to be drawn up to address the uncertain situation. The first identified risks are categorized and defined by the risk hierarchy. At this point, the risk is classified as positive or negative.
After the risk analysis, the next step is to identify the risks priorities. First, focus on the highest risk; and later. These risk factors can from time to time, so the final project is free of risk. So, most project management teams do not identify risk-taking risks and less risky risks. This often occurs in the form of a crisis.
Risk Occupation Art. Management sometimes takes over projects by identifying the project's proper risk. So, an experienced manager will carry out the project to ensure proper risk analysis and avoid project risks.
To achieve the desired results and results, risk management is the best risk. This is a pure intuitive process and depends on the experience of the project management team or the risks already handled by previous projects that have been completed by the same organization.
This study included three key factors in the software development project being unsuccessful. Planning and scheduling, cost estimation and risk management. All these factors need to be taken into account at the management level and then transferred to the lower management.
Planning and scheduling first come, good planning and scheduling makes it a
is a powerful foundation for the software project. The project plan includes
construction of various tasks, timelines and basic roads, including Gantt
charts and PERT charts and different written plans in different situations. If
these factors do not participate, then the software may experience problems
is under development and will be a defect product
Cost estimate is based on project budget, customer type and
size and effort in the project. Cost estimates are often done
during the project lifecycle. There are many ways to affect the project, bad
estimate total failure, affect the good will of the body if a
Costs do not cover, owners are concerned and waste of resources
Risk Management is a practical approach to ambiguity and
is a potential loss associated with the software development project. Possible measures
may be opportunistic (positive risk) if they are the consequences
are favorable or vulnerable (negative risk) if they have consequences